Generally, four destination points in the home are recognized as end uses for hot water: faucets, showers, dishwashers, and washing machines. Now, you do not have to take cold showers, dine on dirty dishes, or wear dirty clothes to reduce your hot water consumption. Less radical measures are available that will be virtually unnoticeable once you apply them.
Faucets and Showers
Simply repairing leaks in faucets and showers can save hot water. A leak of one drip per second can cost $1 per month, yet could be repaired in a few minutes for less than that. And some apparently insignificant steps, when practiced routinely at your household, could have significant results. For example, turning the hot-water faucet off while shaving or brushing your teeth can also reduce water-heating costs. Another option is limiting the amount of time you spend in the shower. Other actions may require a small investment of time and money. Installing low-flow showerheads and faucet aerators can save significant amounts of hot water. Low-flow showerheads can reduce hot water consumption for bathing by 30%, yet still provide a strong, invigorating spray.
A relatively common assumption is that washing dishes by hand saves hot water. However, washing dishes by hand several times a day could be more expensive than operating some automatic dishwashers. If properly used, an efficient dishwasher can consume less energy than washing dishes by hand, particularly when you only operate the dishwasher with full loads.
The biggest cost of operating a dishwasher comes from the energy required to heat the water before it ever makes it to the machine. Heating water for an automatic dishwasher can represent about 80% of the energy required to run this appliance. Average dishwashers use 8 to 14 gallons of water for a complete wash cycle and require a water temperature of 140°F for optimum cleaning.
Another feature that reduces hot-water use in dishwashers is the availability of cycle selections. Shorter cycles require less water, thereby reducing the energy cost. The most efficient dishwasher currently on the market can cost half as much to operate as the most inefficient model.
Like dishwashers, much of the cost—up to 90%—of operating washing machines is associated with the energy needed to heat the water. Unlike dishwashers, washing machines do not require a minimum temperature for optimum cleaning. Either cold or warm water can be used for washing most laundry loads; cold water is always sufficient for rinsing. Make sure you follow the cold-water washing instructions for your particular laundry detergent. Washing only full loads is another good rule of thumb for reducing hot-water consumption in clothes washers.